An aggresome is a proteinaceous inclusion body that forms when cellular degradation machinery is impaired or overwhelmed, leading to an accumulation of protein for disposal. The aggresomal response is believed to be a generalised-protective cell biological response to the presence of a high load of abnormal or damaged protein within the cytosol of a cell which fails to be eliminated by the usual ubiquitin proteasome system for protein degradation.
Typically, an aggresome forms in response to a cellular stress which generates a large amount of misfolded or partially denatured protein: hyperthermia, overexpression of an insoluble or mutant protein, etc. The formation of the aggresome is largely believed to be a protective response, sequestering potentially cytotoxic aggregates and also acting as a staging center for eventual autophagic clearance from the cell. Aggromsome formation is believed to
An aggresome forms around the microtubule organizing center in eukaryotic cells, adjacent to or enveloping the cell’s centrosomes. Lysine linked (63) polyubitiuntation tags the protein for retrograde transport via HDAC6 binding and microtubule-based motor protein, dynein. The protein aggregate is transported through the microtubule and unloaded via p97 forming the aggresome. Mediators such as p62 are believed to be involved in aggrosome formation in sequestering omega-somes, which bind and increase the size of the aggreseome. The aggreseome is eventually targeted for autophagic clearance for the cell. Some pathological proteins, such as a-synuclein, cannot be degraded and cause the aggresomes to form inclusion body’s, or in parkinsons Lewy bodys, which contribute to neuronal dysfunction and death
Anabolic steroids, technically known as anabolic-androgen steroids (AAS) or colloquially simply as “steroids”, are drugs that mimic the effects of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the body. They increase protein synthesis within cells, which results in the buildup of cellulartissue (anabolism), especially in muscles. Anabolic steroids also have androgenic and virilizing properties, including the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics such as the growth of the vocal cords, testicles, and body hair (secondary sexual characteristics). The word anabolic comes from the Greek ἀναβολή anabole, “that which is thrown up, mound”, and the word androgenic from the Greek ἀνδρός andros, “of a man” + -γενής -genes, “born”.
Anabolic steroids were first isolated, identified, and synthesized in the 1930s, and are now used therapeutically in medicine to stimulate bone growth and appetite, induce male puberty, and treat chronic wasting conditions, such as cancer and AIDS. The American College of Sports Medicine acknowledges that AAS, in the presence of adequate diet, can contribute to increases in body weight, often as lean mass increases, and that the gains in muscular strength achieved through high-intensity exercise and proper diet can be additionally increased by the use of AAS in some individuals.
Angiotensin, a peptidehormone, causes blood vessels to constrict, and drives blood pressure up. It is part of the renin-angiotensin system, which is a major target for drugs that lower blood pressure. Angiotensin also stimulates the release of aldosterone, another hormone, from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone promotes sodium retention in the distal nephron, in the kidney, which also drives blood pressure up.
Antipyretics /ænti.paɪˈrɛ.tɪks/; an-tee-pahy-ret-iks; from the Greek anti, against, and pyreticus, (pertaining to fever) are drugs or herbs that reduce fever. Normally, they will not lower body temperature if one does not have a fever. Antipyretics cause the hypothalamus to override an interleukin-induced increase in temperature. The body then works to lower the temperature, result in a reduction in fever.
Astrocytes (etymology: astron gk. star, cyte gk. cell), also known collectively as astroglia, are characteristic star-shaped glialcells in the brain and spinal cord. They perform many functions, including biochemical support of endothelial cells that form the blood–brain barrier, provision of nutrients to the nervous tissue, maintenance of extracellular ion balance, and a role in the repair and scarring process of the brain and spinal cord following traumatic injuries.
Research since the mid-1990s has shown that astrocytes propagate intercellular Ca2+ waves over long distances in response to stimulation, and, similar to neurons, release transmitters (called gliotransmitters) in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Data suggest that astrocytes also signal to neurons through Ca2+-dependent release of glutamate. Such discoveries have made astrocytes an important area of research within the field of neuroscience.
In cell biology, autophagy, or autophagocytosis, is a catabolic process involving the degradation of a cell’s own components through the lysosomal machinery. It is a tightly regulated process that plays a normal part in cell growth, development, and homeostasis, helping to maintain a balance between the synthesis, degradation, and subsequent recycling of cellular products. It is a major mechanism by which a starving cell reallocates nutrients from unnecessary processes to more-essential processes.
A variety of autophagic processes exist, all having in common the degradation of intracellular components via the lysosome. The most well-known mechanism of autophagy involves the formation of a membrane around a targeted region of the cell, separating the contents from the rest of the cytoplasm. The resultant vesicle then fuses with a lysosome and subsequently degrades the contents.
It was first described in the 1960s, but many questions about the actual processes and mechanisms involved still remain to be elucidated. Its role in disease is not well categorized; it may help to prevent or halt the progression of some diseases such as some types of neurodegeneration and cancer, and play a protective role against infection by intracellular pathogens; however, in some situations, it may actually contribute to the development of a disease.
The flavin group is capable of undergoing oxidation-reduction reactions, and can accept either one electron in a two-step process or two electrons at once. Reduction is made with the addition of hydrogen atoms to specific nitrogen atoms on the isoalloxazine ring system.
Over 5000 naturally occurring flavonoids have been characterized from various plants according to their chemical structure.
Flavonoids (specifically flavanoids such as the catechins) are “the most common group of polyphenolic compounds in the human diet and are found ubiquitously in plants”. Flavonols, the original bioflavonoids such as quercetin, are also found ubiquitously, but in lesser quantities.
The widespread distribution of flavonoids, their variety and their relatively low toxicity compared to other active plant compounds (for instance alkaloids) mean that many animals, including humans, ingest significant quantities in their diet. Preliminary research indicates that flavonoids may modify allergens, viruses, and carcinogens, and so may be biological “response modifiers”. In vitro studies show that flavonoids also have anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, and anti-diarrheal activities.
Flavonoids (both flavonols and flavanols) are most commonly known for their antioxidant activity in vitro. At high experimental concentrations that would not exist in vivo, the antioxidant abilities of flavonoids in vitro may be stronger than those of vitamin C and E, depending on concentrations tested.
Consumers and food manufacturers have become interested in flavonoids for their possible medicinal properties, especially their putative role in inhibiting cancer or cardiovascular disease. Although physiological evidence is not yet established, the beneficial effects of fruits, vegetables, tea, and red wine have sometimes been attributed to flavonoid compounds.
A research team at the Linus Pauling Institute and the European Food Safety Authority state that flavonoids, inside the human body, are of little or no direct antioxidant value. Body conditions are unlike controlled test tube conditions, and the flavonoids are poorly absorbed (less than 5%), with most of what is absorbed being quickly metabolized and excreted.
The increase in antioxidant capacity of blood seen after the consumption of flavonoid-rich foods may not be caused directly by the flavonoids themselves, but most likely is due to increased production of uric acid resulting from excretion of flavonoids from the body.
Glial cells, sometimes called neuroglia or simply glia (Greek γλία, γλοία “glue”; pronounced in English either /gliːə/ or /glaɪə/), are non-neuronalcells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the brain, and for neurons in other parts of the nervous system such as in the autonomous nervous system. In the human brain, there is roughly one glia for every neuron with a ratio of about two neurons for every glia in the cerebral gray matter.
As the Greek name implies, glia are commonly known as the glue of the nervous system; however, this is not fully accurate. Neuroscience currently identifies four main functions of glial cells: to surround neurons and hold them in place, to supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons, to insulate one neuron from another, and to destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons. For over a century, it was believed that they did not play any role in neurotransmission. That idea is now discredited; they do modulate neurotransmission, although the mechanisms are not yet well understood.
A haplotype (from the Greek: ἁπλοῦς, haploûs, “onefold, single, simple”) in genetics is a combination of alleles (DNA sequences) at adjacent locations (loci) on the chromosome that are transmitted together. A haplotype may be one locus, several loci, or an entire chromosome depending on the number of recombination events that have occurred between a given set of loci.
In a second meaning, haplotype is a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on a single chromosome of a chromosome pair that are statistically associated. It is thought that these associations, and the identification of a few alleles of a haplotype block, can unambiguously identify all other polymorphic sites in its region. Such information is very valuable for investigating the genetics behind common diseases, and has been investigated in the human species by the International HapMap Project.
Many genetic testing companies use the term ‘haplotype’ to refer to an individual collection of short tandem repeat (STR) allele mutations within a genetic segment, while using the term ‘haplogroup‘ to refer to the SNP/unique-event polymorphism (UEP) mutations which represents the clade to which a collection of potential haplotypes belong.
Losartan (rINN) ( /loʊˈsɑrtən/) is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist drug used mainly to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Losartan was the first angiotensin II receptor antagonist to be marketed. Losartan potassium is marketed by Merck & Co. Inc. under the trade nameCozaar. As of 2009, losartan is available in generic form.
As with all angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) antagonists, losartan is indicated for the treatment of hypertension.
- ^“Switch in cell’s ‘power plant’ declines with age; rejuvenated by drug”. Johns Hopkins Medicine. August 16, 2011.
- ^ Abadir, P. M.; Foster, D. B.; Crow, M.; Cooke, C. A.; Rucker, J. J.; Jain, A.; Smith, B. J.; Burks, T. N. et al. (2011). “Identification and characterization of a functional mitochondrial angiotensin system”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi:10.1073/pnas.1101507108.
It is also used for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. It works by inhibiting both the COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. Naproxen and naproxen sodium are marketed under various trade names, including: Aleve, Anaprox, Antalgin, Feminax Ultra, Flanax, Inza, Midol Extended Relief, Nalgesin, Naposin, Naprelan, Naprogesic, Naprosyn, Narocin, Proxen, Synflex and Xenobid.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs or NAIDs, but also referred to as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents/analgesics (NSAIAs) or nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIMs), are drugs with analgesic and antipyretic (fever-reducing) effects and which have, in higher doses, anti-inflammatory effects.
The term “nonsteroidal” is used to distinguish these drugs from steroids, which, among a broad range of other effects, have a similar eicosanoid-depressing, anti-inflammatory action. As analgesics, NSAIDs are unusual in that they are non-narcotic.
Rosuvastatin (marketed by AstraZeneca as Crestor & marketed by Abbott Healthcare Pvt. Ltd. in India as ‘R2′) is a member of the drug class of statins, used to treat high cholesterol and related conditions, and to prevent cardiovascular disease.
Statins (or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) are a class of drugs used to lower cholesterol levels by inhibiting the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, which plays a central role in the production of cholesterol in the liver.
A steroid is a type of organic compound that contains a characteristic arrangement of four cycloalkane rings that are joined to each other. Examples of steroids include the dietary fat cholesterol, the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone. The core of steroids is composed of twenty carbon atoms bonded together that take the form of four fused rings: three cyclohexane rings (designated as rings A, B, and C in the figure to the right) and one cyclopentane ring (the D ring). The steroids vary by the functional groups attached to this four ring core and by the oxidation state of the rings. Sterols are special forms of steroids, with a hydroxyl group at position-3 and a skeleton derived from cholestane.
Hundreds of distinct steroids are found in plants, animals, and fungi. All steroids are made in cells either from the sterols lanosterol (animals and fungi) or from cycloartenol (plants). Both lanosterol and cycloartenol are derived from the cyclization of the triterpene squalene.